Category: History of Visual Communication

Scelbi & Mark-8

The Altair

The IBM 5100

The TRS-80

The Commodore Pet

1. What is the significance of ARPnet?

It began the history of computers, that we have now, and helped out the US Defense Department.

2. When was the internet that we know, world wide web, developed and introduced?

The world wide web was developed and introduced between 1980-1991.

3. Two men are known for their development of the Apple I computer in a garage behind their parent’s home. Who are they? Are they still with Apple today?

Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak are the makers of Apple. Jobs is not with Apple anymore, but Wozniak is sort of, but has a job that is his first priority rather than apple.

4. Over the years, Apple has included “easter eggs” within their software. What is an “easter egg”?

They are programs hidden inside other programs

5. Search for easter eggs within Photoshop and Illustrator. List a few in your post and find them in the software!

Illustrator: Show eyes, secret birthday cake

Photoshop: strange cargo, hidden faces, box burp

6. Where do you think computers will take us in the next 10 years?

I think that in the near future, computers will be a main source of education, economy, jobs, and ect. It has already increased a great amount recently, therefore it will continue to get more advanced gradually.


I would rate this movie a 5 star.

I really enjoyed watching this movie because it taught me a lot about the history of Apple and Microsoft in an interesting and entertaining way. It showed how both people, Gates and Jobs, pretty much started out with nothing, trying to find someone to look at their ideas. As time passed by, Jobs started Apple, which became a very popular company, but his popularity got to his head. Jobs was very  rude and said some hurtful things to many people in his company. On the other hand, Gates kept finding ways to show his ideas. At one point, he tried to join in with Apple. But after it all, he took ideas from Apple and became very wealthy with his inventions of Microsoft. Jobs got kicked out of the company but came back and helped out the company a lot, while Gates is the richest man with his invention.

1.  Post an example of a Daguerreotype image. Who invented the Daguerreoty process? Briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of the process.

Louis Daguerre introduced this to the world. Some advantages are that it was not very expensive and was not complicated to work. Some disadvantages are that it is not the most modern or easiest thing we can use.


2. Post an example of a Calotype image. Who invented the Calotype process? Briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of the process.

William Henry Fox Talbot invented  the Calotype process. The advantages of it is that the wax paper made it easier to handle. A disadvantage was that it required longer exposers. It also took long during he process.

3. Post an example of a Wet Collodion Process image. Who invented the Wet Collodion Process process? Briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of the process.

 Frederick Scott Archer invented this process. Some advantages were that it gave rise to portable darkrooms and universal. Disadvantages were that only gave him 10 minutes to do it before it would dry so it was complicated and the colors would not turn out as you would want them exactly.

4. Post an example of a Dry Plate Process image . Who invented the Dry Plate Process process? Briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of the process.

Dr. Richard L. Maddox invented this process. SOme advantages were that  it can be stored until exposure, and after exposure it can be brought back to a darkroom for development at leisure and wasnt timed. Disadvantages included that it had many difficulties in the past.

5. Who is credited with taking the first photograph of a human? Post the photograph.

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce is credited with taking the first photograph.

6. What is photo emulsion?

layer of light-sensitive material coated onto a substrate

7. Why did Eastman name his company Kodak?

from the first simple roll film cameras produced by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the “Kodak” in its product line

8. Briefly explain how Polaroid film (instant photography) works?

first instant film must be insterted. then look through the lens and press the button at the top. The picture would then come out in 20 seconds.


Shole’s typewriter

Merganthaler’s Linotype machine

operator using a Linotype

1.  Why was the typewriter an important part of our history?

I think it is a very important part of history because it helped so many people be able to write things faster and more easily than just writing it. It has made many lives and jobs easier. It also led us to more advanced technology that we have today.

2. What is typesetting?

setting for writen material into type

3. Why was the Linotype the greatest advance in printing since movable type?

It brought us closer to the most modern technology we have today, such as keyboards, and it also helped seperate the certain keys that would want to be seperated.

4. How does the Linotype keyboard differ from the keyboard we use today?

It has different keys for lowercase ad capital letters. The lower case, punctuations/digets, and capital letters all are different colors and are seperated on the keyboard.

1.  Briefly explain how the Gutenberg Press worked. Which printing process is this an example of? Post a photo of the Gutenberg Press.

It had wooden and later metal movable type printing. It was an example are  a hand press.


2. What is movable type? Post an photo of movable type within a type case.

A movable type is a system of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document.

3. Briefly describe the process of porous printing.

The image is transferred to the substrate by pushing ink through a porous mesh which carries the pictorial or typographic image.

4. Briefly describe the process of intaglio printing.

The area of the image to be printed is recessed into the surface of the
printing plate and the recessed areas are filled with ink.

5. Briefly describe the process of lithography.

It makes the various patterns used in depositing layers and doping regions on the substrate.

6. What is offset lithography?

printing technique where the inked image is transferred from a plate to a rubber blanket

7. How do printing presses that are utilized today compare to the Gutenberg Press? Post a photo example of an offset lithography press.

The printing process then required a lot more work, unlike now with all of the technology we have that helps us and makes it so much more easier.

8. What is CYMK? Describe four-color process printing.

CYMK is a color process meaning cyan, yellow, majenta, and black. It is for things you want to print out to look clear and the right colors.

This is a scroll.

This is a codex.

This is an illuminated manuscript.

1.  Codex is derived from Latin meaning “block of wood”. Why? What did the codex evolve from?

The codex evolved from wax-covered tablets of wood.

2.  What is the difference between “random access” and “sequential access”?

Sequential is put into some type of order and random is put into different orders that have no pattern. Sequential would be the scroll because you have to look through it like you do with the codex. The codex is a random access because you have to go through it on different pages to find what you’re looking for.

3.  What is the difference between the codex and the illuminated manuscript?

A codex is made with no pictures, only words, and has paper that is not very good in quality. An illustrated manuscript is made from animal skins and has pictures, decorations, and borders around the writing.

4.  What is craftsmanship? Why is it important?

Craftmanship is a practice of highly skill in a craft and is important because they help discover new things for us to observe and can help find out new things for other people to elaborate on.

5.  Why did the format of the codex/book gain so much popularity that we still use it today?

It is an easy way or putting many ideas on pages together in a small object, which is easier to take around and to look through.

6.  Name several examples of current technology that utilizes the format of the codex.

Bibles, dictionary, and textbooks are all examples of modern use of the codex.

This is the Phoenician writing.

This is Greek writing.

This is Roman writing.


1. Why was the Phoenician alphabet successful?

It was the first alphabet script to be widely used around. It helped communication for trading and getting around. It spread fast and was known by a large area.

2. What is a “social structure” of a civilization?

a pattern of relationships in society in the civilization

3. Why is the Roman alphabet the most widely used and what contributions did it make?

Also known as “latin alphabet”. It has been around since the B.C. times. It was brought all around the world as time went on. People would travel and bring the knowledge of latin language and spread to all around the world.

4. Compare and contrast the three alphabets.

Roman is much more known, spread out, and still used. Pheonetic alphabet is oldest. Greek was on Rosetta Stone, as well as Greek. They all are symbolic.

5. When and where did lowercase, or minuscule. letters develop?

It was developed in mid 9th century in Greece.

I would rate the movie 4 stars.

The movie was very interesting and informed me a lot on the history of the Rosetta Stone. It was written in 3 languages: Greek, Egyptian, and demotic scripture. For years and years, people kept trying to find the meaning of the symbols. Part was easier to read than the other. Over time, individual letters or symbols were discovered, which made it easier to figure out. Several people spent years trying to put the pieces of this puzzle together. It was found in 1799 by French soldiers who were taking arts of stone to build stone walls for a fort. It was religious writing written by priests from the B.C.

This is the early cuneiform.

This is an evolved cuneiform.

This is the Akkadian cuniform.



I don’t see a  big difference in the early and evolved Sumerians cuniforms except the fact one looks more worn off. But I do see a difference in the Akkadian cuneiform. The words are more tightly packed together and more writing with much more lines.

1. What is a nomadic civilization?

Moving around homes depending on seasons and weather in each place.

2. Why did Sumerians create a visual form of communication?

They made the first written language so they could communicate with each other  and to help keep track of these business transactions.

3. How did the Sumerians “write” records and documents? What medium was utilized?

They wet clay tables and used stencils to carve writing into it.

4. What is a pictogram? What is the difference between a pictograph/pictogram and an ideogram?

A pictograph is a pictorial or visual representation of an object and a ideogram is a graphic character that tells the meaning of a thing without sounding out the sound of it.

This is the Lascaux where could be found in France.

This is the Altamire where could be found in Spain.

This is the Chauvet where could be found in southern France.


1. What are cave paintings?

Cave paintings are a very old way to communicate to peers without having a language but drawings to tell what they wanted to say.

2. How did prehistoric man create cave paintings?

Many prehistoric people used natural resources around them to carve, paint, ect. for the paintings

3. Why did prehistoric man create these cave paintings?

Many people used it to communicate to their surroundings or to even tell stories, considering they didn’t speak a language so they used this way instead.

4. What is “speleology”?

Speleology is the scientific study of caves.